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Post-Election Audits

top 4 reasons to conduct post election audits

​In January 2019, the Department of State formed a PA post-election audit workgoup to study models of post-election audits.  These audits, such as risk-limiting audits, are scientifically designed and highly effective procedures conducted after an election to strengthen election security and integrity, confirm the accuracy of election outcomes, and provide confidence to voters that their votes are being counted accurately.  

The members of the workgroup include:

  • Allegheny County Election Director David Voye
  • Lancaster County Election Director Randall Wenger
  • Mercer County Election Director Jeff Greenburg
  • Mifflin County Election Director Zane Swanger
  • Philadelphia Deputy City Commissioner Nick Custodio
  • Sullivan County Election Director Hope Verelst
  • Brennan Center Democracy Program Counsel Liz Howard
  • Common Cause PA Executive Director Micah Sims
  • Verified Voting Senior Science and Technology Policy Officer Mark Lindeman
  • Department of State representatives:
    • Kathy Boockvar - PA Secretary of the Commonwealth
    • Jonathan Marks -Deputy Secretary for Elections and Commissions 
    • Mike Moser - Director, Bureau of Election Security and Technology
    • Jess Myers - Director, Office of Policy
  • Department of State advisors:
    • Jess Mathis - Director, Bureau of Election Services and Notaries
    • Sindhu Ramachandran - Voting System Analyst

The workgroup will:

  • develop recommendations by January 2020, 
  • work with the legislature for any suggested legislative enhancements, and 
  • carry out pilot audits in multiple counties across the Commonwealth in 2019-2021.  

By November 2022, all counties will utilize the new enhanced audits.


November 2019 Audit Pilots

Pennsylvania is one of the first states in the nation to pioneer pilots of the risk-limiting audit, which is a scientifically designed procedure using statistical methods to confirm whether reported election outcomes are correct and to detect possible interference. 

The first audit pilots of this cutting-edge security measure in PA occured in November 2019 in Mercer County and Philadelphia. County election officials, Department of State staff and election experts from the U.S. Election Assistance Commission, the University of Michigan, the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law, the Democracy Fund, VotingWorks, and Verified Voting participated in developing and implementing the pilot audit process using the new paper-based voting systems.

"We were very impressed with the risk-limiting audit. It was statistically superior and easier to conduct than the current statutory 2 percent audit," -Deputy City Commissioner Nick Custodio
more about Philadelphia and Mercer County pilot audits

Both pilots demonstrated how a risk-limiting audit can be used to provide a high-level of confidence and statistical verification that the outcome of the election is accurate.

Robust post-election audits have been recommended by the U.S Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Senate Select Intelligence Committee, and many other experts, and are one part of a strong and resilient election infrastructure. Risk-limiting audits use statistical methods to confirm whether reported election outcomes are correct and to detect possible interference.


At the state and county levels, many important recommendations by national security and cybersecurity experts are already in place in Pennsylvania, including mandatory pre-election testing of all voting equipment before every election. The pilot audits will help determine whether the risk-limiting audit can complement existing safeguards and further strengthen the commonwealth's ability to withstand attacks on its election systems. The pilot audits will incorporate a number of variations of the basic procedure to evaluate operational efficiency and ease of use.

Initial Report

 Pennsylvania Post-Election Audit Workgroup Initial Report 


Pennsylvania Completes Pilot Post-Election Audits Using Cutting-Edge Security Measure

11/22/2019 - "These state-of-the-art audits will provide Pennsylvania voters with an extra level of confidence in the outcome of elections like the one held earlier this month," Secretary Boockvar said...more

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